Choose ONE correct answer for each multiple-choice question. Read carefully and enter the correct answer on the answer sheet.


1. Communication is defined as:
a. Exchanging information with others
b. Stating your feelings and facts
c. Writing or drawing
d. Giving your opinion
2. Body language is:
a. A way of communicating feelings by using the body positioning, facial expressions and the eyes
b. Only used by clients to tell their doctors what is causing them problems
c. Only used by persons who are deaf
d. Only used by persons who cannot speak
3. When a client, caregiver, or co-worker makes you angry, you should:
a. Tell him/her your true feeling
b. Respond sharply
c. Think before answering and respond tactfully
d. Leave the room
4. A client accuses you of stealing ten dollars. You have not taken the money, but the client does not believe you. What should do?
a. Ask the other personal care attendant for the client if they took the money
b. Ask the client why you are being accused
c. Offer to give the client the ten dollars
d. Notify your agency supervisor
5. Mr. Jones makes you uncomfortable because of sexual statements and an occasional misplaced hand. How would you handle this situation?
a. Tell him that it is unacceptable behavior and call your supervisor
b. Tell him to keep his hands to himself
c. Tell him that you will tell his family
d. Push his hands away and tell him to "stop it"
6. When speaking to a client who is hard of hearing and does not wear a hearing aide, you should:
a. Face the client when speaking to him or her
b. Speak as loud as you must in order to be heard
c. Speak slowly and clearly
d. All of the above
7. The client with dementia
a. Loses the ability to make judgments
b. Loses the ability to perform self-care
c. May be angry, restless, or irritable
d. All of the above
8. Clients sometimes express religious beliefs with which the personal care attendant does not agree. In dealing with these situations, which should the attendant use as a guide?
a. Clients have a right to their own beliefs, which should be respected
b. Clients should be told not to discuss their beliefs with aides
c. Personal care attendant should explain their beliefs to clients
d. Personal care attendant should pretend to have the same beliefs that clients have


9. The client tells you he has had a red rash for three days. What should you do?
a. Tell him not to worry about it
b. Put an antibiotic cream on it
c. Report it to your supervisor
d. Tell him he may be allergic to fruit
10. After arriving to care for Mr. Jones, he complains he has had severe cramping pains in the calf of his left leg for the last three hours. You call your supervisor to report this and then record on your documentation notes:
a. "states he has leg cramps"
b. "complains of pain"
c. "left leg hurts a lot"
d. "states he's had severe cramping in the calf of his left leg for the last three hours"
11. The principles of documenting your care include:
a. If a task is not charted, it is assumed not to have been done
b. If you make a charting mistake, draw a line through the mistake and write error
c. You may not chart activities performed by other personnel
d. All of the above
12. It is your responsibility as a personal care attendant to:
a. Do what ever the client wants even if it is not on the assignment sheet
b. Make necessary changes in the service plan/assignment sheet
c. Report changes in the client's condition to the supervisor
d. All of the above
13. A client complains that he has fallen three times in the past two days. Which of the steps should you take?
a. Ask the client when and what happened when he fell
b. Report the falls to your supervisor
c. Check the client for possible injury
d. All of the above
14. It is Mrs. Kelly's bath day, but she states she is in too much pain to take the bath. What should you do?
a. Reschedule the bath for the next visit
b. Tell Mrs. Kelly that "the bath will make you feel better"
c. Call and report to your supervisor
d. Call 911
15.A personal care attendant is way behind in seeing all of the assigned clients. She decides to skip part of the care of her last client. She documented that the care was given as assigned. This is an example of:
a. Fraud
b. Unethical behavior
c. Lying
d. All of the above
16. When a client complains of pain, what should the personal care attendant do first?
a. Ask the client to describe the pain
b. Call the client's doctor
c. Tell the client what medication works for you when you have pain
c. Tell the client what medication works for you when you have pain
d. Change the client's position
17. Which of the following incidents in a mentally ill client should you report immediately?
a. Talking to and hearing voices
b. Neglect of one's personal appearance
c. Skipping or stopping medications
d. All of the above
18. Mrs. Rand, who has diabetes and takes insulin regularly, tells the personal care attendant that she feels very nervous and jittery. What should the PCA do?
a. Take her temperature
b. Call her doctor
c. Have her lie down on the bed
d. Call the supervisor immediately


19. During a visit you need to wash your hands:
a. Before you give physical care to the client
b. After you empty a bedside commode
c. Before you leave the client's home
d. All of the above
20. In what situations should gloves be used?
a. When emptying a urinary drainage bag
b. When the client has been incontinent of stool
c. When the client has a draining wound
d. All of the above
21. When soiled linen is removed from the client's bed, it should be:
a. Shaken, then folded
b. Folded hem to hem
c. Held away from one's clothes
d. Inspected for any tears
22. Which of the following best describes standard Precautions?
a. Used only for client's with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (that causes AIDS) or Hepatitis B Virus
b. Used only for clients with airborne diseases such as tuberculosis
c. Used when providing care for all clients
d. Used only if you have a cold or the flu
23. In caring for a client with HIV/AIDS, you must practice which of the following Standard Precautions?
a. Wear gloves at all times when caring for the client
b. Wear a gown when handling linens that contain body fluids
c. Dispose of body wastes in a leak-proof container
d. All of the above


24. Mrs. Snodgrass tells you that she hasn't had a stool since your last visit five days ago. What should you do?
a. Give her an enema
b. Notify your supervisor
c. Tell her to drink more prune juice
d. Tell her to increase the fiber in her diet
25. Mrs. Jones is an 82-year-old who lives alone. She returned home yesterday after surgery for a fractured hip and rehabilitation in an extended care facility. When doing care, which of the following is the most important to report to your supervisor?
a. The wound is red and oozing yellow drainage
b. Complaints of the wound itching
c. Client not wanting to take her pain pill
d. The dressing is loose on one end of the incision
26. Mrs. Smith complains of constipation when you are there. Which of the following should you do?
a. Encourage her to spend as much time lying or sitting as possible to ease the discomfort
b. Limit her fluids
c. Tell her to take an extra laxative
d. Ask Mrs. Smith how much fiber and liquids she is taking in her diet
27. Mrs. Seevers has Alzheimer's disease. Her caregiver reports that Mrs. Seevers has been trying to leave home at all hours. What would you do?
a. Restrain client in a chair
b. Lock the client in her room
c. Stay with the client and report the behavior to your supervisor
d. Have the caregiver give the client extra medication before you leave the home
28.Mr. Jones, a client with dementia, is becoming very agitated. Which of the following suggestions would be helpful in this situation?
a. Stay calm
b. Offer diversion or entertainment
c. Be agreeable
d. All of the above


29. Part of your duties as a personal care attendant is to assure a safe home environment. This includes:
a. Proper infection control with good hand washing
b. Electrical and fire safety
c. Clear walkways; no throw rugs; stairs, halls and exits free from clutter
d. All of the above
30. When a grease fire occurs, you can:
a. Use a fire extinguisher to put out the fire
b. Smother it out with a lid
c. Pour baking soda over the fire
d. All of the above
31. Which laundry product is also a disinfectant?
a. Fabric softener
b. Liquid pre-wash
c. Bleach
d. Liquid stain remover
32. When working in a kitchen it is important to practice good safety. Which of the following is NOT an appropriate safety measure?
a. Clean all spills immediately
b. Refrigerate warmed food only after it has cooled
c. Keep drawers and cupboards closed
d. Air dry dishes after washing them, instead of drying with a towel
33. To prevent accidental poisoning of children and adults with cognitive impairments which of the following actions is best?
a. Keep poisons locked up
b. Keep an antidote ready in case someone takes a poison
c. Have an emergency number to call by the phone
d. Have the physician's number near the phone
34. A client is receiving oxygen through a nasal tube. You would perform all of the following safety precautions except:
a. Make sure there are no kinks in the tubing
b. Turn off the oxygen at mealtime
c. Give oral hygiene as directed by your supervisor
d. Post a sign and do not allow smoking in the client's room


35. In case of a fire in the home, what is the best procedure to follow?
a. Tell the client to be calm, call the fire department, and then take the client out of the house
b. Get the client and yourself out of the house and call the fire department
c. Try and put the fire out yourself
d. Call your supervisor and the fire department, then leave the house
36. In case of an emergency, the MOST important number to call is:
a. A family member
b. The doctor
c. The emergency medical service
d. Your agency
37.A client is choking on some object that is caught in his airway. Before any first-aid measures are applied, find out:
a. If the client's pulse is over 80
b. If the client can swallow liquids
c. If the client can speak or cough
d. If the client's respirations are less than 20
38. You arrive at a client's home that lives alone. He does not answer the door when you knock and the door is locked. What do you do first?
a. Call the emergency medical service
b. Call the client's family
c. Call the agency and report your findings
d. Go to the next client
39.A client suddenly complains of intense, squeezing pain in the chest that goes down the arm. The client is sweating profusely. The personal care attendant should:
a. Call for emergency help immediately
b. Massage the client's chest and arm
c. Assist the client back to bed
d. Call the agency to report your findings
40. While giving a bath in a shower chair, the client suddenly gasps and becomes unresponsive. The personal care attendant who is CPR certified should:_
a. Yell for caregiver assistance
b. Leave the client and call 911
c. Lower the client to the floor of the tub, yell for the caregiver to call 911 and initiate CPR if indicated
d. Tell the caregiver to stay with the client while you call 911 and your supervisor
41. As a personal care attendant, what can you do for a client's minor burn as an emergency procedure?
a. Use cool water over the burned area
b. Apply butter on the burned area
c. Cover the area with a dry dressing
d. All of the above


42. Which is not a common reaction of children to stress?
a. Nightmares
b. Playing quietly with their favorite toys
c. Aggressive acting out behavior
d. Bedwetting
43. Mrs. Smith, age 85, does not like to eat. To encourage her to improve the amount she eats, you should:
a. Give her extra helpings on pretty plates
b. Make the surroundings and conversation pleasant while serving her only one thing at a time
c. Give her a balanced diet even if she does not like all of the food
d. Serve small helpings of foods that she likes in pleasant surroundings
44. You are caring for Johnny, a 7 year old, with cerebral palsy. He is showing sign of aggression and shouting at you. What can you do to change that behavior?
a. Tell him to go to his room for a "time out" and shut the door
b. Give him cookies and milk
c. Remember he has a chronic disease and suggest play activity
d. Call his Mother and tell her to come home
45. Mr. Marsh has Alzheimer's disease. You assist him twice a week with bathing, as he can no longer perform activities of daily living independently. You are very frustrated because he grabs onto you or the washcloth during the bath. What can you do to prevent this?
a. Tell him in a loud voice to stop
b. Restrain his arms and hands during the bath
c. Tell the supervisor that there needs to be 2 attendants assigned, so that you can do the bath
d. Give him something to hold during the bath
46. Mrs. Ramirez lives with her son and his two teenage children. Her hospital bed is in the living room because there is no bedroom space for her. The family keeps walking through this area while you are assisting with her bath. What can you do to give the client privacy?
a. Tell everyone to stay out while you are giving her bath
b. Tell the family that you are about to start the bath in five minutes and after that time no one may come in until after the bath
c. Make arrangements with the family on when to give the bath to help promote the need for privacy
d. All of the above
47. Mr. and Mrs. Williams, both in their 70s, are distressed about changes that are affecting their lives. Which of the following would not be stressful?
a. Positive relationships with family and friends
b. A change in Social Security benefits
c. One of them is diagnosed with a terminal illness
d. Moving from their home to a retirement community
48. Which is an example of confidential information?
a. Is a former bank president in town
b. Was a professional athlete
c. Has AIDS
d. All of the above
49. Which of the statements is true about any client with disabilities?
a. They are sick and should be treated as such
b. They need as much help as you can give
c. They need to be as independent with self-care as possible
d. They need repeated instruction to do a task
50. Mrs. Thomas had a stroke six months ago, which resulted in right-sided weakness along with difficulty in swallowing and speaking. Due to these problems she cries easily and gets angry with you frequently. How can you help ease her anxiety?
a. Be patient and assist her in methods to express herself
b. Tell her to stop feeling sorry for herself and to try harder
c. Tell your supervisor that you do not want to work with Mrs. Thomas any longer.
d. You do all of the talking
51. Which of these statements about the elderly is true?
a. They cannot change
b. They can learn new things
c. They want to become dependent on others
d. They do not enjoy meeting new people
52. The ability to make observations is even more important when working with infants and young children than it is when working with adults. The main reason for this is that infants and young children:
a. Do not like to be told what to do
b. Are usually sicker than adults
c. Enjoy human contact more than adults
d. Cannot explain how they feel
53. When basic needs of clients, no matter what age, are met, the client will feel:
a. Aggressive
b. Discouraged
c. A sense of well-being
d. A sense of insecurity
54. In caring for a dying client, which of the following guidelines should not be followed?
a. Keep the client clean and dry
b. Avoid false cheerfulness
c. Speak in a normal tone
d. Assume the client cannot hear you


55. Urinary leg bags are used for:
a. Catheterized male clients
b. Catheterized clients who are up and out of bed
c. Catheterized clients who are confined to bed
d. Catheterized clients who have a decreased urinary output.
56. When assisting with a bath, how often should the water be changed?
a. As often as needed to have warm, clean water at all times
b. Once is all that is necessary
c. Only after the client washes the perineal area
d. Only after the client has washed the front half
57. Which of the following is the most appropriate practice to promote good skin care in the elderly?
a. Keep the skin clean and well-moisturized
b. Apply alcohol to moist areas of the skin
c. Wash daily with scented soaps
d. All of the above
58. Why is it important that a client have good mouth care?
a. Bacteria in the mouth can cause tooth decay and gum infections
b. The saliva in the mouth is the source of stomach juices
c. Poor oral hygiene causes more saliva to be made
d. Poor oral hygiene interferes with the sense of smell
59. The personal care attendant is helping Mrs. Elden with her bath. Mrs. Elden prefers to wash her perineal area herself. Which of these measures should the PCA take?
a. Have Mrs. Elden use cold water only in washing her perineal area
b. Have Mrs. Elden use no soap when washing her rectal area
c. Remind Mrs. Elden to wash front to back
d. Remind Mrs. Elden to wash back to front
60. You are to assist Mr. Stone into the shower. To be sure the water is not too hot, what should do?
a. Ask Mr. Stone to place his hand in the shower to test the water temperature
b. Use half hot water and half cold water to ensure the proper water temperature
c. Allow the shower run for 1/2 hour so that it reaches room temperature
d. Test the water temperature on your inner wrist
61. Mrs. Willow's Foley catheter is attached to a drainage bag. The drainage bag should always be kept
a. Below the level of the bladder
b. At the level of the bladder
c. 12 inches above the level of the bladder
d. 3 feet above the level of the bladder
62. An elderly client occasionally wets his trousers. What should you do?
a. Give him fluids with his meals only
b. Avoid giving him coffee and tea
c. Tell him if he urinates on himself, he will have to wear diapers
d. Encourage him to go to the bathroom at least every two hours


63. You are assisting your client in a transfer when he suddenly becomes weak and begins to fall. You should:
a. Quickly grab a chair and seat the client
b. Call for help
c. Help the client gently to the floor
d. Carry the client back to bed
64. You need to get Mrs. Jones from the bed to the wheelchair. She has left-sided weakness due to a stroke. Which step would you do first to insure a safe transfer?
a. Have Mrs. Jones put her arms around your neck and lift her to a sitting position
b. Place your arms under Mrs. Jones' armpits and swing her to the wheelchair in one smooth move
c. Assist Mrs. Jones to the edge of the bed and allow her to get her balance
d. Stand on Mrs. Jones' left side, bend at your waist, keep your knees locked and lift on the count of the three
65. Mrs. Alexander was in a car accident and sustained multiple fractures one month ago. She is now being cared for in her home. Her right leg is still in a cast. When you ambulate this client with her walker, where would you stand?
a. On her left side to support her strong side
b. On her right side slightly behind her
c. Behind her
d. In front of her so that you can move either way to her strong side or weak side if needed
66. Before helping a client into or out of a wheelchair, which of these actions is necessary?
a. Have the brakes unlocked and leave the foot rests down
b. Lock the brakes and fold the foot rests up
c. Have the brakes unlocked and the foot rests up
d. Lock the brakes and leave the foot rests down
67. A client has had a stroke and has left-sided weakness. The client can walk with assistance of a cane. It is best for the personal care attendant to assist this client by walking:
a. Directly in front of the client
b. Directly in back of the client
c. On the client's left side
d. On the client's right side
68. A client who has been in bed wants to get up in a chair. You assist him to sit on the edge of the bed. The client says, "I'm dizzy." What should you do?
a. Rub the client's feet
b. Help the client to a standing position and see if the dizziness goes away
c. Put a cool compress on the client's head
d. Support the client in a sitting position and wait a minute or so to see if the dizziness goes away


69. A client lying on his back has slid down in bed and needs help moving up in bed. To start this, the client should, if possible:
a. Raise himself on his elbows
b. Separate his legs widelyc. Arch his back
c. Arch his back
d. Flex his knees and push with his heels
70. To prevent pressure sores in the elderly, you should:
a. Change the client's position every two hours if they are unable to do so themselves
b. Get the client out of bed if they are allowed to do so
c. Ensure adequate nutrition with special emphasis on protein
d. All of the above
71. Which of these statements describe good body mechanics?
a. Carry heavy objects as far from your body as possible
b. Bend the knees when lifting an object off the floor
c. Bend over at the waist when lifting an object from the floor
d. Lift rather than push a heavy object


72.A normal newborn should be fed:
a. On a rigid 4 hour schedule, day and night
b. Every 2-3 hours, whether hungry or not
c. On a scheduled determined by the personal care attendant
d. At least every 4 hours or on demand
73. Which food is appropriate on a low salt diet?
a. Butter
b. Ham
c. Chicken
d. Canned soup
74. The four basic food groups are:
a. Bread, cereals, meat and dairy products
b. Fruits, vegetables, dairy products and meat
c. Meat, dairy products, fruits/vegetables and bread
d. Bread, fruits/vegetables, meat and poultry
75. Which of these fluids is highest in protein?
a. Vegetable broth
b. Lemonade
c. Tomato juice
d. Eggnog
76. When clients do not have enough fluids, they may develop which of these problems?
a. Diarrhea
b. Swelling
c. Constipation
d. Dandruff


77. Which statement is incorrect?
a. The personal care attendant may get a pill bottle from a cabinet and bring the bottle to the client at the client's request
b. The personal care attendant should observe and document if the client takes his/her medication
c. If the nurse or family forgets, the personal care attendant may take the right dose of medication out of the bottle and give it to the client with Alzheimer's disease
d. The personal care attendant may help clients to remember to take their medications.
78. The personal care attendant should:
a. Remind clients to take their medications
b. Document and report to their supervisor if the client refuses to take their medications
c. Give the client water or other liquid, if allowed, to help in swallowing the medication(s).
d. All of the above


79. The most important measure to prevent the spread of disease is hand washing.
a. true
b. false
80. Beliefs and practices differ in cultures and often include what medical treatments may be accepted.
a. true
b. false
81. The food eaten in a culture is influenced by where they live, the kinds of foods that grow there and their religious restrictions.
a. true
b. false
82. As a personal care attendant, you can help clients meet their spiritual needs by accepting how clients express their beliefs.
a. true
b. false
83. Diarrhea can cause dehydration and other serious complications and should be reported.
a. true
b. false
84. Smoking in bed is fine for anyone who is not confused.
a. true
b. false
85.A personal care attendant encourages her client to be as independence as possible.
a. true
b. false

Personal Care Assistant (PCA) Test